A NOTE ON FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS
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PROFITABILITY RATIOS
These ratios help measure the profitability of a firm. There are two types of
profitability ratios:
PROFITABILITY RATIOS IN RELATION TO SALES
A firm which generates a substantial
amount of profits per rupee of sales can comfortably meet its operating
expenses and provide more returns to its shareholders. The relationship
between profit and sales is measured by profitability ratios. There are two
types of profitability ratios: Gross Profit Margin and Net Profit Margin.
Gross Profit Margin: This
ratio measures the relationship between gross profit and sales. It is
calculated as follows:
Gross Profit Margin = Gross Profit/Net sales * 100


This ratio shows the profit that remains after the manufacturing costs have been
met. It measures the efficiency of production as well as pricing.
Net Profit Margin: This ratio is computed using the following formula:
Net profit / Net sales
This ratio shows the net earnings (to be distributed to both equity and
preference shareholders) as a percentage of net sales. It measures the overall
efficiency of production, administration, selling, financing, pricing and tax
management. Jointly considered, the gross and net profit margin ratios provide
an understanding of the cost and profit structure of a firm.
PROFITABILITY RATIOS IN RELATION TO INVESTMENT
These ratios measure the relationship between the profits and investments of a
firm. There are three such ratios: Return on Assets, Return on Capital Employed,
and Return on Shareholders' Equity.
Return on Assets (ROA): This ratio measures the profitability of the assets of a
firm. The formula for calculating ROA is:
ROA = EAT + Interest  Tax Advantage on Interest / Average Total Assets
Return on Capital Employed (ROCE): Capital employed refers to the longterm
funds invested by the creditors and the owners of a firm. It is the sum of
longterm liabilities and owner's equity. ROCE indicates the efficiency with
which the longterm funds of a firm are utilized. It is computed by the
following formula:
ROCE = (EBIT / Average Total Capital Employed) * 100
Return on Shareholders' Equity: This ratio measures the return on shareholders'
funds. It can be calculated using the following methods:
 Rate of return on total shareholders' equity.
 Rate of return on ordinary shareholders.
 Earnings per share.
 Dividends per share.
 Dividend payout ratio.
 Earning and Dividend yield.
(i) Return on Total Shareholders' Equity
The total shareholders' equity consists of preference share capital, ordinary
share capital consisting of equity share capital, share premium, reserves and
surplus less accumulated losses.
Return on total shareholders' equity = (Net profit after taxes) * 100 /Average
total shareholders' equity
(ii) Return on Ordinary Shareholder's Equity (ROSE)
This ratio is calculated by dividing the net profits after taxes and preference
dividend by the average equity capital held by the ordinary shareholders.
ROSE = (Net Profit after Taxes  Preference Dividend) * 100 / Networth
(iii) Earnings per Share (EPS)
EPS measures the profits available to the equity shareholders on each share
held. The formula for calculating EPS is:
EPS = Net Profits Available to Equity Holders / Number of Ordinary Shares
Outstanding
(iv) Dividend per Share (DPS)
DPS shows how much is paid as dividend to the shareholders on each share held.
The formula for calculating EPS is:
DPS = Dividend Paid to Ordinary Shareholders / Number of Ordinary Shares
Outstanding
(v) Dividend Payout Ratio (D/P Ratio)
D/P ratio shows the percentage share of net profits after taxes and after
preference dividend has been paid to the preference equity holders.
D/P ratio = Dividend per Share (DPS) / Earnings per Share * 100
(vi) Earning & Dividend Yield
Earning yield is also known as earningprice ratio and is expressed in terms of
the market value per share.
Earning Yield = EPS / Market Value per Share * 100
Dividend Yield is expressed in terms of the market value per share.
Dividend Yield = (DPS / Market Value per Share) * 100
VALUATION RATIOS
CALCULATING FINANCIAL RATIOS OF HLL
COMMON SIZE INCOME STATEMENT OF HLL
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