Introduction to Human Resource Management
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Chapter 11 : Employee Training and
Definition and Purpose of Training, Improving Employee Performance, Updating
Employee Skills, Avoiding Managerial Obsolescence, Preparing for Promotion
and Managerial Succession, Retaining and Motivating Employees, Creating an
Efficient and Effective Organization, Assessing Training Needs, Areas of
Training, Importance of Learning, Employee Training Methods, On-the-Job
Training, Off-the-Job Training, Evaluation of the Training Programme,
Training and Development, Concept of Management Development, Work Roles of
Managers, Objectives of Management Development, Process of Management
Development, Management Development Methods, On-the-Job Development Methods,
Off-the-Job Development Methods, Evaluating a Management Development
Training is defined as the systematic development of the knowledge, skills
and attitudes required by an individual to perform a given task or job
successfully. Training aims at improving the organization's performance
through the enhanced performance of its employees. While training helps
employees do their current jobs, development prepares individuals to handle
The major purposes of training are improving employee performance, updating
employee skills, avoiding managerial obsolescence, preparing for promotion
and managerial succession, and satisfying personal growth needs. Training
needs are determined based on the organization's and the employee's needs.
Organizations provide training to employees in the areas of company policies
and procedures, specific skills, human relations, and managerial skills.
Some organizations also provide apprentice training. There are two types of
training methods - on-the-job and off-the-job. In on-the-job training
methods, an employee is given training in the actual work situation, where
he learns by doing and through direct experience.
Some of the on-the-job methods of training are job instruction training,
apprenticeship and coaching, job rotation, and committee assignments.
Off-the-job training refers to the training given to an employee away from
the immediate work area. Here the employee focuses his attention upon
learning from the trainer's lectures or through simulated exercises.
Off-the-job training methods include classroom lectures; various simulation
exercises like case exercises, experiential exercises, computer modeling,
vestibule training and role playing; and programmed instruction. Systematic
evaluation of training activities helps in evaluating the success of the
Training increases productivity, reduces the level of supervision required,
reduces accidents related to work and increases organizational stability.
Apart from training, an organization should also concentrate on management
development. Management development is a systematic process of growth and
development by which employees develop their skills and abilities to manage.
It is future oriented and is concerned with education of the employees.
Management development improves a manager's ability to understand problems
and arrive at solutions. It helps the manager in effective handling of his
different work roles like planning, monitoring performance, communication
and development. Management development programs are designed to meet
specific objectives, which contribute to both employee and organizational
There are several steps in the process of management development. These
include reviewing organizational objectives, evaluating the organization's
current management resources, determining individual development needs,
designing and implementing development programs, and finally, evaluating the
effectiveness of these programs.
The two categories of development methods are on-the-job development, and
off-the-job development. Some of the widely used on-the-job development
methods are: coaching, job rotation, under study assignments and multiple
management. Off-the-job development methods include simulation exercises,
sensitivity training, transactional analysis, conferences and lectures. To
ensure the success of the management development programs, they have to be
evaluated from time to time.