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Introduction to Human Resource Management

            

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Chapter 1 : Introduction to HRM

Definition and Concept of Human Resource Management, History of Human Resource Management, Scientific Management Approach, Human Relations Approach, Human Resources Approach, Functions of Human Resource Management , Managerial Functions, Operative Functions, Human Resource Policies and Procedures, Emerging Role of Human Resource Management, Value of Human Resources, Role of HR Executives, The Service Provider, The Executive, The Facilitator, The Consultant, The Auditor, Challenges to HR Professionals, Worker Productivity, Quality Improvement, The Changing Attitude of Workforce, The Impact of the Government, Quality of Work Life, Technology and Training, Strategic Human Resource Management.

Chapter Summary

Human resources management is one of the most complex and challenging fields of management. It deals with the people dimension in management. Over the past eighty years, various approaches to human resource management have been adopted by companies. The human resource approach which is currently in vogue, has redefined the way people are treated and managed in the organizational context.

This approach requires that employees or the work force be treated as resources and not just as factors of production (as in the scientific approach) or emotional beings with psychological needs (as in the human relations approach). Basically, HRM includes the four functions of acquiring, developing, motivating and managing the human resources. HRM functions are broadly classified into two categories managerial functions and operative functions. Managerial functions include planning, organizing, directing and controlling.

The operative functions of HRM are related to specific activities of HRM such as recruitment, development, compensation and employee relations. HR policies are based on the organizational culture and objectives and they define the role of the HR department in an organization. They determine the relationship between the management and the employees and the way the employees are treated and valued in the organization.

Therefore, they determine the levels of employee satisfaction and motivation. HR procedures help the management in implementing the HR policies. Human resources play an important role in the development of businesses and countries. Attracting, retaining, motivating, and developing people with varied interests and expectations is a major HR challenge.

Moreover, challenges posed by the turbulent business environment, rapid technological changes, a diverse workforce, and the changing legal and governmental regulations also affect organizations. In this situation, a new role has emerged for HR function, as a value provider, as a key player in organizational working and as a contributor to organization's strategy.

The specialist role of the HR professional takes a number of forms: the auditor's role, the executive's role, the facilitator's role, the consultant's role and the service-provider's role. HRM objectives should be in alignment with the organizational objectives, and should balance them with the individual and social goals.

HR policies, framed after determining the objectives of HRM, are described as a set of proposals and directions that guide the managers in pursuit of the objectives. Today's HR professional has a lot of challenges to face in the form of changing composition and attitudes of the work force, growing emphasis on quality of products and services and the quality of work life, fast paced technological changes, government policies, etc.

He has to gear up to meet these challenges effectively by being more innovative and proactive. Strategic Human Resource Management, helps the organization in the achievement of long-term and short-term goals through optimum utilization of human resources. It involves the development of human resources objectives and their alignment with the organizational objectives.

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