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Introduction to Human Resource Management


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Chapter 5 : Job Analysis and Design

Concept of Job Analysis, Process of Job Analysis, Information Gathering, Job Specification Competency Determination, Developing a Job Description, Developing a Job Specification, Job Analysis Methods, Observation Method, Individual Interview Method, Group Interview Method, Questionnaire Method, Technical Conference Method, Diary Method, Functional Job Analysis, Position Analysis Questionnaire, Critical Incident Technique, Job Analysis Information, Job Description, Drafting and Maintaining Job Description, Job Specification, Uses of Job Analysis, Employment, Organization Audit, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal, Promotion and Transfer, Preventing Dissatisfaction, Compensation Management, Health and Safety, Induction, Industrial Relations, Career Planning, Succession Planning, Issues in Job Analysis, Concept of Job Design, Different Approaches to Job Design, Modern Management Techniques, Job Rotation, Job Enlargement, Job Enrichment, Some More Modern Management Techniques

Chapter Summary

Job analysis, which is also called job review or job classification, is a systematic exploration of the tasks, duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job. The process of job analysis involves collection of background information, selection of representative jobs to be analyzed, collection of job analysis information, development of a job description and job specification.

The formal and systematic methods of job analysis are functional job analysis, the position analysis questionnaire, and the critical incident technique. Job analysis is useful for preparing job descriptions and job specifications which are the basis for most of the HR activities like recruitment, training, performance appraisal, industrial relations and wage and salary administration.

Job design determines the way in which work should be performed which, in turn, affects the degree of authority of an employee over the work; the scope of decision-making by the employee; the number of tasks an employee has to perform; and employee satisfaction. The main objectives of job design are to meet organization requirements such as higher productivity, operational efficiency and quality; and to simultaneously satisfy the psychological and sociological needs of the employees.

There are different approaches to job design the engineering approach, the human relations approach, the job characteristics approach and the sociotechnical approach. An effectively designed job enhances employee productivity and satisfaction. Modern management has many job design options, which can transform monotonous and routine jobs into more challenging and motivating ones. Some of the popular job design options are job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment.

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